Pembroke Upper Mill Pond

Pembroke Upper Mill Pond (97.8 KB) Return to the Pembrokeshire Main Page

Grid References O.S. Explorer map OL36 South Pembrokeshire. Site centre: SM993016

Status Proposed LNR.

Tenure Leased from a private owner since 1979.

Size 5 ha (12 acres).

Location and Access Notes

Public transport accessible from Pembroke town centre on foot.

Little grebe by Margaret Holland

Little grebe by Margaret Holland

Parking in Pembroke or roadside, public footpath from railway embankment (SM991014) or from stile on the A4075. Footpath; not accessible to wheelchairs. Access through woodlands to the north of the site is being developed which will include car park at SM996016.


Pond with developing reed bed, fen and carr, adjoining woodland.

The pond was formerly part of a tidal creek which extended eastwards from below Pembroke Castle. The reserve forms the eastern extremity of this creek. Barriers to tidal movement occurred with the construction of a tidal mill in the 13th century and a dam in 1975.

The vegetation represents a transition from estuarine to freshwater conditions. Lesser Duckweed and Horned Pondweed occur in the open water with emergent vegetation dominated by Common Reed. Estuarine species present include Sea Club Rush, Salt Marsh Rush and Sea Arrow Grass. At the eastern end is an area of fen and carr vegetation, characterised by Grey Willow and Alder, with an understorey of Yellow Iris, Hemp-agrimony, Purple Loosestrife and Water Forget-me-not.

Birds are varied due to the change in habitats across the site. On the water can be seen Little Grebe, Heron, Mute Swan, Mallard, Moorhen, Cormorant, Teal, Coot, Kingfisher, Tufted Duck and Pochard. Treecreepers, Willow Warbler, and several Tits are among the woodland birds.

There is a wide variety of aquatic invertebrates such as Freshwater Shrimp and Water Louse, with gastropod molluscs including the Ramshorn Smail and Jenkins Spite Shell. Other invertebrates include pond-skaters, Waterboatmen and damselflies. Four species of fish have been recorded: Three-spined Stickleback, Common Eel, Trout and Flounder, and Frogs are also common. Otters can also be found using the ponds and reed bed.

Pembroke Upper Mill Pond